Phony Diagnoses Hide High Rates of Drugging at Nursing Homes


The handwritten physician’s order was simply eight phrases lengthy, but it surely solved an issue for Dundee Manor, a nursing house in rural South Carolina struggling to deal with a brand new resident with extreme dementia.

David Blakeney, 63, was stressed and agitated. The house’s physician wished him on an antipsychotic medicine referred to as Haldol, a strong sedative.

“Add Dx of schizophrenia for use of Haldol,” learn the physician’s order, utilizing the medical shorthand for “diagnosis.”

But there was no proof that Mr. Blakeney truly had schizophrenia.

Antipsychotic medicine — which for many years have confronted criticism as “chemical straitjackets” — are harmful for older individuals with dementia, nearly doubling their probability of loss of life from coronary heart issues, infections, falls and different illnesses. But understaffed nursing houses have usually used the sedatives in order that they don’t have to rent extra workers to deal with residents.

The dangers to sufferers handled with antipsychotics are so excessive that nursing houses should report back to the federal government what number of of their residents are on these potent drugs. But there is a vital caveat: The authorities doesn’t publicly expose the use of antipsychotics given to residents with schizophrenia or two different situations.

With the physician’s new prognosis, Mr. Blakeney’s antipsychotic prescription disappeared from Dundee Manor’s public file.

Eight months following his admission with a protracted checklist of illnesses — and after round the clock sedation, devastating weight reduction, pneumonia and extreme bedsores that required one of his ft to be amputated — Mr. Blakeney was lifeless.

A New York Times investigation discovered the same sample of questionable diagnoses nationwide. The consequence: The authorities and the trade are obscuring the true charge of antipsychotic drug use on weak residents.

The share of residents with a schizophrenia prognosis has soared 70 p.c since 2012, in response to an evaluation of Medicare information. That was the 12 months the federal authorities, involved with the overuse of antipsychotic medicine, started publicly disclosing such prescriptions by particular person nursing houses.

Today, one in 9 residents has acquired a schizophrenia prognosis. In the final inhabitants, the dysfunction, which has robust genetic roots, afflicts roughly one in 150 individuals.

Schizophrenia, which regularly causes delusions, hallucinations and dampened feelings, is sort of at all times identified earlier than the age of 40.

“People don’t just wake up with schizophrenia when they are elderly,” stated Dr. Michael Wasserman, a geriatrician and former nursing house govt who has turn out to be a critic of the trade. “It’s used to skirt the rules.”

Some portion of the rise in schizophrenia diagnoses displays the truth that nursing houses, like prisons, have turn out to be a refuge of last resort for individuals with the dysfunction, after massive psychiatric hospitals closed many years in the past.

But unfounded diagnoses are additionally driving the rise. In May, a report by a federal oversight agency stated almost one-third of long-term nursing house residents with schizophrenia diagnoses in 2018 had no Medicare file of being handled for the situation.

For nursing houses, cash is on the road. High charges of antipsychotic drug use can damage a house’s public picture and the star ranking it will get from the federal government. Medicare designed the scores system to assist sufferers and their households consider amenities utilizing goal information; a low ranking can have main monetary penalties. Many amenities have discovered methods to hide serious issues — like insufficient staffing and haphazard care — from authorities audits and inspectors.

One consequence of the wrong diagnoses is that the federal government is understating what number of of the nation’s 1.1 million nursing house residents are on antipsychotic drugs.

According to Medicare’s net web page that tracks the hassle to scale back the use of antipsychotics, fewer than 15 percent of nursing house residents are on such drugs. But that determine excludes sufferers with schizophrenia diagnoses.

To decide the total quantity of residents being drugged nationally and at particular houses, The Times obtained unfiltered information that was posted on one other, little-known Medicare net web page, in addition to facility-by-facility information {that a} affected person advocacy group bought from Medicare through an open information request and shared with The Times.

The figures confirmed that at least 21 percent of nursing house residents — about 225,000 individuals — are on antipsychotics.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which oversees nursing houses, is “concerned about this practice as a way to circumvent the protections these regulations afford,” stated Catherine Howden, a spokeswoman for the company, which is called C.M.S.

“It is unacceptable for a facility to inappropriately classify a resident’s diagnosis to improve their performance measures,” she stated. “We will continue to identify facilities which do so and hold them accountable.”

Representatives for nursing houses stated medical doctors who diagnose sufferers and write the prescriptions to deal with them are accountable, though these medical doctors usually work in partnership with the nursing houses.

“If physicians are improperly diagnosing individuals with serious mental health issues in order to continue an antipsychotic regimen, they should be reported and investigated,” Dr. David Gifford, the chief medical officer at the American Health Care Association, which represents for-profit nursing houses, stated in a press release.

Medicare and trade teams additionally stated they’d made actual progress towards lowering antipsychotic use in nursing houses, pointing to a significant drop since 2012 within the share of residents on the medicine.

But when residents with diagnoses like schizophrenia are included, the decline is lower than half what the federal government and trade declare. And when the pandemic hit in 2020, the pattern reversed and antipsychotic drug use elevated.

For many years, nursing houses have been utilizing medicine to manage dementia sufferers. For almost as lengthy, there have been calls for reform.

In 1987, President Ronald Reagan signed a law banning the use of medicine that serve the curiosity of the nursing house or its workers, not the affected person.

But the follow continued. In the early 2000s, research discovered that antipsychotic medicine like Seroquel, Zyprexa and Abilify made older individuals drowsy and extra prone to fall. The medicine had been additionally linked to coronary heart issues in individuals with dementia. More than a dozen scientific trials concluded that the medicine almost doubled the danger of loss of life for older dementia sufferers.

In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration required producers to place a label on the medicine warning that they elevated the danger of loss of life for sufferers with dementia.

Seven years later, with antipsychotics nonetheless extensively used, nursing houses had been required to report back to Medicare what number of residents had been getting the medicine. That information is posted on-line and turns into half of a facility’s “quality of resident care” rating, one of three main classes that contribute to a house’s star ranking.

The solely catch: Antipsychotic prescriptions for residents with any of three unusual situations — schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome and Huntington’s illness — wouldn’t be included in a facility’s public tally. The principle was that because the medicine had been authorized to deal with sufferers with these situations, nursing houses shouldn’t be penalized.

The loophole was opened. Since 2012, the share of residents categorised as having schizophrenia has gone as much as 11 percent from lower than 7 percent, information present.

The diagnoses rose at the same time as nursing houses reported a decline in behaviors related to the dysfunction. The quantity of residents experiencing delusions, for instance, fell to 4 percent from 6 percent.

Caring for dementia sufferers is time- and labor-intensive. Workers should be skilled to deal with difficult behaviors like wandering and aggression. But many nursing houses are chronically understaffed and don’t pay sufficient to retain staff, particularly the nursing assistants who present the majority of residents’ every day care.

Studies have discovered that the more severe a house’s staffing state of affairs, the higher its use of antipsychotic medicine. That means that some houses are utilizing the highly effective medicine to subdue sufferers and keep away from having to rent additional workers. (Homes with staffing shortages are additionally the almost certainly to understate the quantity of residents on antipsychotics, in response to the Times’s evaluation of Medicare information.)

The pandemic has battered the trade. Nursing house employment is down more than 200,000 since early final 12 months and is at its lowest stage since 1994.

As staffing dropped, the use of antipsychotics rose.

Even some of the nation’s main consultants on elder care have been greatly surprised by the frequency of false diagnoses and the overuse of antipsychotics.

Barbara Coulter Edwards, a senior Medicaid official within the Obama administration, stated she had found that her father was given an incorrect prognosis of psychosis within the nursing house the place he lived though he had dementia.

“I just was shocked,” Ms. Edwards stated. “And the first thing that flashed through my head was this covers a lot of ills for this nursing home if they want to give him drugs.”

Homes that violate the foundations face few penalties.

In 2019 and 2021, Medicare stated it deliberate to conduct focused inspections to look at the difficulty of false schizophrenia diagnoses, however these plans had been repeatedly placed on maintain as a result of of the pandemic.

In an evaluation of authorities inspection experiences, The Times discovered about 5,600 situations of inspectors citing nursing houses for misusing antipsychotic drugs. Nursing house officers advised inspectors that they had been shelling out the highly effective medicine to frail sufferers for causes that ranged from “health maintenance” to efforts to cope with residents who had been “whining” or “asking for help.”

In greater than 99 p.c of the instances, inspectors concluded that the violations represented solely “potential,” not “actual,” hurt to sufferers. That means the findings are unlikely to harm the houses’ scores.

Mr. Blakeney’s spouse of 4 many years and one of his grownup daughters stated in interviews that he had by no means exhibited any psychological well being issues. Then he developed dementia, and his habits turned troublesome to handle. His spouse, Yvonne Blakeney, discovered that she may now not take care of him.

Over the subsequent a number of months, Mr. Blakeney was out and in of medical amenities, the place he was handled for issues together with a urinary tract an infection. He turned more and more confused and upset.

In April 2016, he went to the Lancaster Convalescent Center, a nursing house in Lancaster, S.C., the place a physician labeled him with schizophrenia on a type that licensed the use of antipsychotic medicine. That prognosis, nonetheless, didn’t seem on his subsequent hospital information.

Lancaster’s administrator declined to remark.

Six months later, Mr. Blakeney arrived at Dundee Manor, a 110-bed house in Bennettsville, S.C. At the time, it acquired just one out of 5 stars in Medicare’s ranking system. The low rating mirrored poor marks from authorities inspectors who had visited the power. It was additionally penalized for insufficient staffing.

When Mr. Blakeney was admitted, schizophrenia didn’t seem in his lengthy checklist of illnesses, which included hypertension, pneumonia and superior dementia, in response to medical information disclosed in a lawsuit that his widow later filed towards the house.

Two weeks after his arrival, Dundee Manor’s medical director, Dr. Stephen L. Smith, instructed the house so as to add the schizophrenia prognosis in order that Mr. Blakeney may proceed to obtain Haldol. He was additionally prescribed Zyprexa, in addition to the sleeping tablet Ambien and trazodone, which is commonly given to assist sufferers sleep.

Ms. Blakeney’s lawyer, Matthew Christian, stated he had not seen any proof that anybody carried out a psychiatric analysis of Mr. Blakeney.

Mr. Blakeney, who had labored for many years as a farmhand, was as soon as tall and muscular. But the medicine left him confined to his mattress or wheelchair, exhausted. When his spouse and sister visited, they couldn’t wake him, even once they introduced his favourite meal of fried hen. Over eight months, his weight dropped from 205 to 128 kilos.

“I cried because he was so little,” Ms. Blakeney stated. “You could see his rib cage, just sticking out.”

Mr. Blakeney’s medical information present that a number of individuals warned that he was too sedated and receiving too many medicine.

Three weeks after he arrived at Dundee Manor, a bodily therapist famous his excessive lethargy, even when she washed his palms and face. In mid-November, after Mr. Blakeney misplaced 12 kilos in a single week, a dietitian left a notice for the physician. “Consider medication adjustment,” she wrote, including that he was “sleeping all day and through meals.”

That month, an outdoor pharmacist crammed out a type recommending that Mr. Blakeney’s doses of Haldol and Zyprexa be decreased to adjust to federal pointers that require nursing houses to progressively scale back doses of antipsychotics.

On a type with Dr. Smith’s identify and signature, a field labeled “disagree” was checked. “Staff feels need” for the continued doses, the shape famous.

It was precisely the kind of resolution — prescribing highly effective medicine to assist the nursing house and its workers, not the affected person — that the 1987 regulation was alleged to ban.

Dr. Smith declined to remark. Dundee Manor didn’t reply to requests for remark.

According to Medicare’s public database of nursing house scores, solely 7 p.c of Dundee Manor’s long-term residents had been getting antipsychotic medicine within the third quarter of 2018. That put the nursing house in an excellent mild; the nationwide common was roughly double.

But Dundee Manor’s comparatively low determine was a mirage created by the massive quantity of residents who had been identified with situations like schizophrenia. In actuality, The Times discovered, 29 p.c of Dundee Manor’s residents had been on antipsychotics at the time, in response to unpublished Medicare information obtained by public information requests by California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform.

False schizophrenia diagnoses will not be confined to low-rated houses. In May, the inspector normal of the Department of Health and Human Services, for instance, recognized 52 nursing houses the place at least 20 p.c of all residents had an unsupported prognosis. Medicare rated greater than half of these houses with at least 4 of the utmost 5 stars. (The inspector normal’s report didn’t establish the nursing houses. The Times obtained their identities by a public-records request.)

One was the Hialeah Shores Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Miami, a 106-bed house bordered by palm timber and a white painted fence. It is a five-star facility that, in response to the official statistics, prescribed antipsychotics to about 10 p.c of its long-term residents in 2018.

That was a extreme understatement. In reality, 31 p.c of Hialeah Shores residents had been on antipsychotics, The Times discovered.

In 2018, a state inspector cited Hialeah Shores for giving a false schizophrenia prognosis to a lady. She was so closely dosed with antipsychotics that the inspector was unable to awaken her on three consecutive days.

There was no proof that the lady had been experiencing the delusions frequent in individuals with schizophrenia, the inspector discovered. Instead, workers at the nursing house stated she had been “resistive and noncooperative with care.”

Dr. Jonathan Evans, a medical director for nursing houses in Virginia who reviewed the inspector’s findings for The Times, described the lady’s worry and resistance as “classic dementia behavior.”

“This wasn’t five-star care,” stated Dr. Evans, who beforehand was president of a group that represents medical workers in nursing houses. He stated he was alarmed that the inspector had determined the violation precipitated solely “minimal harm or potential for harm” to the affected person, regardless of her heavy sedation. As a consequence, he stated, “there’s nothing about this that would deter this facility from doing this again.”

Representatives of Hialeah Shores declined to remark.

Seven of the 52 houses on the inspector normal’s checklist had been owned by a big Texas firm, Daybreak Venture. At 4 of these houses, the official charge of antipsychotic drug use for long-term residents was zero, whereas the precise charge was a lot greater, in response to the Times evaluation evaluating official C.M.S. figures with unpublished information obtained by the California advocacy group.

More than 39 p.c of residents at Daybreak’s Countryside Nursing and Rehabilitation, for instance, had been receiving an antipsychotic drug in 2018, though the official determine was zero.

A lawyer for Daybreak, Charles A. Mallard, stated the corporate couldn’t remark as a result of it had bought its houses and was shutting its enterprise.

As the U.S. authorities has tried to restrict the use of antipsychotic medicine, nursing houses have turned to different chemical restraints.

Depakote, a medicine to deal with epilepsy and bipolar dysfunction, is one more and more widespread alternative. The drug can make people drowsy and will increase the danger of falls. Peer-reviewed studies have proven that it doesn’t assist with dementia, and the federal government has not authorized it for that use.

But prescriptions of Depakote and comparable anti-seizure medicine have accelerated because the authorities began publicly reporting nursing houses’ use of antipsychotics.

Between 2015 and 2018, the latest information accessible, the use of anti-seizure medicine rose 15 p.c in nursing house residents with dementia, in response to an evaluation of Medicare insurance coverage claims that researchers at the University of Michigan ready for The Times.

And whereas Depakote’s use rose, antipsychotic prescriptions fell 16 p.c.

“The prescribing is far higher than you would expect based on the actual amount of epilepsy in the population,” stated Dr. Donovan Maust, a geriatric psychiatrist at the University of Michigan who carried out the analysis.

About half the complaints that California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform receives about inappropriate drugging of residents contain Depakote, stated Anthony Chicotel, the group’s prime lawyer. It comes in a “sprinkle” form that makes it straightforward to slide into meals undetected.

“It’s a drug that’s tailor-made to chemically restrain residents without anybody knowing,” he stated.

In the early 2000s, Depakote’s producer, Abbott Laboratories, started falsely pitching the drug to nursing houses as a technique to sidestep the 1987 regulation prohibiting amenities from utilizing medicine as “chemical restraints,” in response to a federal whistle-blower lawsuit filed by a former Abbott saleswoman.

According to the lawsuit, Abbott’s representatives advised pharmacists and nurses that Depakote would “fly under the radar screen” of federal laws.

Abbott settled the lawsuit in 2012, agreeing to pay the federal government $1.5 billion to resolve allegations that it had improperly marketed the medicine, together with to nursing houses.

Nursing houses are required to report back to federal regulators what number of of their sufferers take all kinds of psychotropic medicine — not simply antipsychotics but in addition anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants and sleeping capsules. But houses should not have to report Depakote or comparable medicine to the federal authorities.

“It is like an arrow pointing to that class of medications, like ‘Use us, use us!’” Dr. Maust stated. “No one is keeping track of this.”

In 2019, the principle lobbying group for for-profit nursing houses, the American Health Care Association, published a brochure titled “Nursing Homes: Times have changed.”

“Nursing homes have replaced restraints and antipsychotic medications with robust activity programs, religious services, social workers and resident councils so that residents can be mentally, physically and socially engaged,” the colourful two-page leaflet boasted.

Last 12 months, although, the trade teamed up with drug corporations and others to push Congress and federal regulators to broaden the checklist of situations beneath which antipsychotics don’t should be publicly disclosed.

“There is specific and compelling evidence that psychotropics are underutilized in treating dementia and it is time for C.M.S. to re-evaluate its regulations,” wrote Jim Scott, the chairman of the Alliance for Aging Research, which is coordinating the marketing campaign.

The lobbying was financed by drug corporations together with Avanir Pharmaceuticals and Acadia Pharmaceuticals. Both have tried — and to this point failed — to get their medicine authorized for treating sufferers with dementia. (In 2019, Avanir agreed to pay $108 million to settle prices that it had inappropriately marketed its drug to be used in dementia sufferers in nursing houses.)

Ms. Blakeney stated that solely after hiring a lawyer to sue Dundee Manor for her husband’s loss of life did she study he had been on Haldol and different highly effective medicine. (Dundee Manor has denied Ms. Blakeney’s claims in court docket filings.)

During her visits, although, Ms. Blakeney seen that many residents had been sleeping most of the time. A pair of ladies, particularly, at all times caught her consideration. “There were two of them, laying in the same room, like they were dead,” she stated.

In his first few months at Dundee Manor, Mr. Blakeney was out and in of the hospital, for bedsores, pneumonia and dehydration. During one hospital go to in December, a physician famous that Mr. Blakeney was unable to speak and will now not stroll.

“Hold the patient’s Ambien, trazodone and Zyprexa because of his mental status changes,” the physician wrote. “Hold his Haldol.”

Mr. Blakeney continued to be prescribed the medicine after he returned to Dundee Manor. By April 2017, the bedsore on his proper heel — a consequence, partially, of his not often getting out of mattress or his wheelchair — required the foot to be amputated.

In June, after weeks of fruitless looking for one other nursing house, Ms. Blakeney discovered one and transferred him there. Later that month, he died.

“I tried to get him out — I tried and tried and tried,” his spouse stated. “But when I did get him out, it was too late.”



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