For Biden, Europe Trip Achieved 2 Major Goals. And Then There Is Russia.

GENEVA — President Biden had three large duties to perform on his first international journey since taking workplace: Convince the allies that America was again, and for good; collect them in frequent trigger in opposition to the rising menace of China; and set up some purple traces for President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, whom he referred to as his “worthy adversary.”

He largely completed the primary, although many European leaders nonetheless ponder whether his presidency could but be simply an intermezzo, sandwiched between the Trump period and the election of one other America First chief uninterested within the 72-year-old Atlantic alliance.

He made inroads on the second, a minimum of in components of Europe, the place there was monumental reluctance to assume first of China as a menace — economically, technologically and militarily — and second as an financial associate.

Mr. Biden expressed cautious optimism about discovering methods to succeed in a well mannered lodging with Mr. Putin. But it’s removed from clear that any of the modest initiatives the 2 males described on Wednesday, after a stiff, three-hour summit assembly on the sting of Lake Geneva, will essentially change a nasty dynamic.

Mr. Biden, one among his senior aides mentioned after the assembly was over, “is perpetually optimistic” that Mr. Putin could, regardless of a protracted historical past of efforts to undermine the Western alliance, see benefit in altering course.

“He may be the only one,” the aide mentioned.

This was Mr. Biden’s European comeback tour, and he started in England, on the rocky shores of Cornwall, taking part in all of the outdated crowd favorites — speaking about friendship, alliances, session, comity and multilateralism. At each cease he opened with the identical three phrases: “America is back.”

He quoted poets, principally Irish poets. It was all warmly acquired by European leaders, who had been battered and bruised by President Donald J. Trump’s assaults on them for being weak, divided, self-interested free-riders.

What Mr. Biden didn’t say was nearly as vital as what he did say. He didn’t ask why he ought to decide to defending nations that run commerce surpluses with the United States, a frequent theme for Mr. Trump. Instead, he spoke of the financial advantages of creating new types of clear power or joint tasks in semiconductor manufacturing.

Yet, when President Emmanuel Macron of France mentioned as he sat with Mr. Biden that “it’s great to have the U.S. president part of the club,” it was a line that clearly would play in a different way in numerous components of a divided United States. Among the 74 million who voted for Mr. Trump final 12 months, the “club” is the issue, a spot the place American pursuits get subjugated.

But Mr. Biden by no means straight addressed — a minimum of in his public remarks — the elemental supply of Europe’s post-Trump traumatic stress syndrome: doubts about the way forward for American democracy. Obviously he can not provide any predictions, a lot much less ensures, about what’s going to occur when his time period runs out in January 2025. So he didn’t attempt.

“Don’t underestimate the Trump years as a shock to the E.U.,” mentioned Rosa Balfour, the director of Carnegie Europe, a Brussels assume tank. “There is the shadow of his return and the E.U. will be left in the cold again. So the E.U. is more cautious in embracing U.S. demands.”

But Mr. Biden has argued to the Europeans that the perfect insurance coverage in opposition to one other Trump-like president is to work with him to point out that democracies work, and to reply to the China problem.

The competitors with China lay on the middle of a deal to resolve the decade-long Boeing-Airbus dispute, a supply of tariffs and recriminations that dates again to 2004.

What lastly resolved it — and wiped away implementation of $11.5 billion in tariffs — was a typical resolve to keep away from dependence on a Chinese provide chain for constructing planes and to sluggish China’s entry into the business plane enterprise. The subtext was to start to have interaction Europe in “decoupling” from China’s financial affect.

While there’s a palpable sense of reduction on the message that America is again, mentioned Thomas Bagger, a German diplomat who’s an adviser to the nation’s president, “we also have noticed that the center of gravity of U.S. policy is changing, and the centrality of the rise of China to U.S. interests will have profound consequences for Europe and any new German government.”

Both Mr. Macron and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany — who has all the time been the strongest voice for treating China as a associate first and a competitor second — expressed some concern {that a} stability be struck on China, which is a vital commerce associate, essential to fixing the local weather disaster and never a navy energy in Europe.

“If you look at the cyberthreats and the hybrid threats, if you look at the cooperation between Russia and China, you cannot simply ignore China,” Ms. Merkel mentioned. But she additionally mentioned: “One must not overrate it, either — we need to find the right balance.”

Another subtext of the journey was the discomfort of some European leaders with Mr. Biden’s repeated declarations that the battle of the age is “democracy versus autocracy.” It is just not that they disagree, a number of mentioned on the sidelines of the conferences, however reasonably that Mr. Biden’s phrases may harden the division and usher in a brand new Cold War.

They say they perceive Mr. Biden’s concern that China’s know-how technique is all about constructing a system of mobile networks, undersea cables and house belongings that will give it the potential to chop off or secretly monitor communications.

And they don’t argue with the White House effort to halt American funding in Chinese corporations which might be promoting the facial recognition software program and social-scoring algorithms that Beijing makes use of to repress dissent and imprison its Muslim minority. But to this point they haven’t joined Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken when he refers to Beijing’s actions against the Uyghur population and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minorities as genocide.

So Mr. Biden toned down his autocracy vs. democracy discuss for this journey. And that labored.

Yet whereas “Biden has gotten words from the Europeans, he hasn’t gotten deeds,” mentioned James M. Lindsay, director of research on the Council on Foreign Relations. “Settling some trade issues is a very good start. But it’s not how you start, but how you finish, how you translate the sentiments in the communiqués into common policies, and that will be very difficult.’’

Mr. Biden carefully choreographed the trip so that he demonstrated the repairs being made to the alliance before going on to meet Mr. Putin. Mr. Biden made clear he wanted to present a unified front to the Russian leader, to demonstrate that in the post-Trump era, the United States and the NATO allies were one.

That allowed Mr. Biden to take a softer tone when he got to Geneva for the summit meeting, where he sought to portray Mr. Putin as an isolated leader who has to worry about his country’s future. When Mr. Biden said in response to a reporter’s question that “I don’t think he’s looking for a Cold War with the United States,’’ it was a signal that Mr. Biden believes he has leverage that the rest of the world has underappreciated.

Mr. Putin’s economy is “struggling,’’ he said, and he faces a long border with China at a moment when Beijing is “hellbent” on domination.

“He still, I believe, is concerned about being ‘encircled,’ ” Mr. Biden mentioned. “He still is concerned that we, in fact, are looking to take him down.” But, he added, he didn’t assume these safety fears “are the driving force as to the kind of relationship he’s looking for with the United States.”

He set as the primary take a look at of Mr. Putin’s willingness to take care of him critically a overview of how one can enhance “strategic stability,’’ which he described as controlling the introduction of “new and dangerous and sophisticated weapons that are coming on the scene now that reduce the times of response, that raise the prospects of accidental war.”

It is territory that has been uncared for, and if Mr. Biden is profitable he could save lots of of billions of {dollars} that will in any other case be spent on hypersonic and house weapons, in addition to the event of latest nuclear supply programs.

But none of that’s prone to deter Mr. Putin on the earth of cyberweapons, that are filth low-cost and provides him an instrument of energy every day. Mr. Biden warned throughout his information convention that “we have significant cyber capability,” and mentioned that whereas Mr. Putin “doesn’t know exactly what it is,” if the Russians “violate these basic norms, we will respond with cyber.”

The U.S. has had these capabilities for years however has hesitated to make use of them, for concern {that a} cyberconflict with Russia would possibly escalate into one thing a lot greater.

But Mr. Biden thinks Mr. Putin is simply too invested in self-preservation to let it come to that. In the tip, he mentioned, simply earlier than boarding Air Force One for the flight house, “You have to figure out what the other guy’s self-interest is. Their self-interest. I don’t trust anybody.”

David E. Sanger reported from Geneva and Steven Erlanger from Brussels.

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